OIL TODAY VS. YESTERDAY
Today’s engine oils are not the same as they were even a few years ago.
- Phosphorus degrades catalytic converters
- Zinc & Phosphorus content unlimited before 1993
- Phosphorus now limited to max 800 ppm (API SM / ILSAC GF-4)
- Mandated for 10W-30 and lower – still occurring in higher grades
- Diesel oils now limited to 1,200 ppm Phosphorus (Oct. 2006)
- Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valves
- Increased drain intervals – less waste oil
- Restricted Sulfur content
ZINC VS. DETERGENT
Detergent and dispersant additives “compete” against zinc in the engine because they are polar molecules as well. Detergents and dispersants clean the engine, but they don’t distinguish between sludge, varnish and zinc – they clean all three away.
Modern API certified oils contain higher levels of detergents and dispersants due to the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems on passenger cars and diesel trucks. The “old school” theory on engine break-in was to run non-detergent oils, and this allowed for greater activation of the zinc additive in the oil.
Joe Gibbs Driven BR Break-In oils utilize the correct balance of anti-wear additives and detergents, so you don’t need to buy expensive additives to try to “fix” a low zinc (ZDDP) oil.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
ZDP (aka Zinc) and Moly (MoS2) are polar molecules, so they are attracted to carbon steel surfaces where they react with heat, to create a sacrificial additive coating. The protective coating prevents metal to metal contact, which reduces friction and wear. Moly can withstand pressure up to 500,000 psi.
Detergent additives are also polar, so they “compete” against the Zinc and Moly.
Key Protection For:
Cams, Lifters, Push Rods, Wrist Pins, Distributor Gears, Bearings, Etc…
WHY IS ZINC IMPORTANT?
As Load Increases, Lubrication Moves From Full Film (Hydrodynamic) To Boundary Lubrication. Zinc Provides Boundary Lubrication.
The Right Oil
- Proper viscosity and additives for operating temperature, RPM and load
- There is no “magic molecule” that prevents engine failures
- No amount of Zinc can fix bad geometry – lifters must spin
In The Right Place
- The best oil sitting in the oil pan doesn’t help your camshaft
- Oiling system design is critical to proper lubrication
- Look into EDM hole lifters, piston oilers, valve spring oilers
In The Right Time
- On time delivery is critical
- Cold starts and Dry starts account for majority of engine wear – Multigrade oils dramatically reduce cold start wear
In The Right Amount
- Proper oil flow is critical at all times
- Oil is the lifeblood of an engine
WHAT IS OIL?
A quart of oil contains 2 things:
- Distillation Gases
- Vegetable oils and Animal fats
Roughly 15% of an oil is the additive package, but that 15% plays a
big role in performance.
- Anti-Wear (Zinc)
- Friction Modifiers (Moly)
- Viscosity Modifiers
WHERE DOES OIL COME FROM?
Crude oil is fractioned by distillation into different “cuts” of oil and fuels. Engine oils come from the middle part of the tower, and are then refined by various methods to become base oil. The fraction of oil that becomes engine oil contains 3 families of molecules – Paraffins, Naphthas, and Aromatics.
Paraffins: Good VI, preferred molecule
Naphthas: Low VI
Aromatics: Very Volatile
Base Oil Choices
- Group I, II & III are mineral oils (Crude Oil)
- Group IV – PAO Synthetic (Distillation Gases)
- Group V is everything else (Animal fats and Vegetable oils)
SYNTHETIC VS. MINERAL
The difference between synthetic and mineral oils are the structure of the molecules and the purity of the oil. Refined crude oil contains complex mixtures of different molecular structures and saturates (Nitrogen, Sulfur and Oxygen). There is no way to select only the best materials from this mixture. Thus mineral oils contain both the most suited materials and the least suited materials for an engine oil. Synthetic oils are man made, and have tailored molecular structures with predictable properties. Because of this, synthetics can have the best properties of a mineral oil without the un-desired materials. Synthetic oils have two unique advantages over mineral oils – lower traction coefficients and higher oxidation stability. This translates into improved energy efficiency – less friction – and longer drain intervals.
Oil is Not One Size Fits All
To achieve maximum lubricant performance, an oil must be formulated to meet the specific need of the application.
The choice of oil for any application should be guided by the following operating conditions:
- Service Interval
- Equipment Design
- Operating Environment
STREET OIL VS. RACING OIL
Modern Engine Set-Ups
- Low RPM (Low Load – Less Need For Anti-Wear)
- Overhead cams (No Flat Tappets or Push Rods – Less Need For Anti-Wear)
- EGR Valves (More need for Detergents)
- Extended Drain Intervals (increased detergents & acid neutralizers)
- Modern engines built to use modern oils in order to achieve cleaner emissions
Race Engine Set-Ups
- High RPM (High Load – More Need For Friction Modifiers)
- Flat Tappet cams and Push-Rods – More Need For Anti-Wear
- Short Drain Intervals and EGR valves – Needs Fewer Detergents
Additive clash occurs when two different additive chemistries interact antagonistically resulting in dips in protection. The high levels of detergent in API oils can contribute to Additive Clash.
Typical Break-In Procedure:
Three different lubricant chemistries working against each other.
Joe Gibbs Driven System Approach:
Matched lubricant chemistries working together to provide sustained protection.
Establishing an effective anti-wear / EP film in an engine is not unlike painting your car. Think of this system ofassembly grease followed by break-in oil and then synthetic oil like the primer, sealer and base color of automotive paint. It makes a difference when you apply the right products for the job in the correct order!
WHAT IS VISCOSITY?
- Viscosity is a measure of flow. Oil viscosity is generally thought of in terms of SAE grades, like 15W-50.
- An oil’s flow rate increases as temperature increases.
- SAE grades are ranges, not an exact measurement of an oil’s flow rate.
- The number before the W is measured at -22F. The Number after the W is measured at 212F.
- Kinematic Viscosity measures the exact flow rate of an oil at both 100F and 212F degrees.
SAE grades are only measured at 212F. The number before the “W” in a 15W-50 or 0W-30 is a cold cranking index that is measured at -22F.
Wider Bearing Clearances Require Higher Viscosity Oil To Maintain Hydrodynamic Oil Wedge
The “Operating” viscosity is the Centistoke flow rate of an oil at the operating oil temperature of an engine. Some engines run low oil temperatures, and other engines run extremely high temperatures. Low viscosity oils work well in low temp applications, and high viscosity oils work well in high temp applications. The SAE Grade viscosity of these oils are very different, but the operating flow rates are very similar.
- Polymer based oil additive – makes multi-grade oils possible
- “Shrink” under shear forces
- Shear forces in race engines are greater than in production engines
- Prone to permanent shear loss under extreme pressures
- Adds friction modifying and dispersant functions
|No Shear||With Shear||Change|
|Viscosity @ 100F||179.5|
|Viscosity @ 212F||20.4||13.2||-7.2|
|Viscosity @ 300F||7.8||5.1||-2.7|
|Description||Mobil 1 15W50
|Mobil 1 15W50
|No Shear||With Shear||Change|
|Viscosity @ 100F||127.5|
|Viscosity @ 212F||17.7||10.5||-7.2|
|Viscosity @ 300F||7.2||4.4||-2.8|
|Description||Joe Gibbs XP6||Joe Gibbs XP6|
|No Shear||With Shear||Change|
|Viscosity @ 100F||115.0|
|Viscosity @ 212F||16.4||12.1||-4.3|
|Viscosity @ 300F||6.4||4.7||-1.7|
|Description||Joe Gibbs XP3||Joe Gibbs XP3|
|No Shear||With Shear||Change|
|Viscosity @ 100F||73.8|
|Viscosity @ 212F||12.0||8.9||-3.0|
|Viscosity @ 300F||4.9||3.6||-1.3|
|Chemical Identity||XP3 Drain, 500 laps, Darrell Lanigan||XP1 Drain, #18 Car, Atlanta||Xp1 Drain, #11 Car, Atlanta||New XP1||New XP3|
|Viscosity @ 40C cSt||76.1||51.3||51.5||50.0||73.8|
|Viscosity @ 100C cSt||11.9||9.1||9.1||9.1||11.9|
|Remarks||No Loss||No Loss||No Loss|
|GASOLINE FUEL DILUTION|
|FTIR, OXIDATION AND NITRATION RESULTS|
|Remarks||Little to none||None||None|
By changing your filter every 100 laps and topping off the oil tank, you are able to increase the drain interval. As a result, the operating cost of oil goes down.
|Initial Fill||100 Laps||200 Laps||300 Laps||400 Laps|
|Valvoline VR1 (8 quarts)||39.92||39.92||39.92||39.92||39.92|
|XP6 (8 quarts)||115.92||14.49||14.49||14.49||14.49|
|Oil + Filter||Total (500 laps)|
|Valvoline VR1 20W-50||59.91||59.91||59.91||59.91||59.91||$299.55|
Valvoline VR1 20W-50 – $4.99/qt – Prices from Jegs.com 1/20/08 | XP6 $14.49/qt
Save Cams, Save Time & Save Money!
- Joe Gibbs Break-In oil has 2,800 ppm Zinc – Double the Zinc of Rotella!
- No More Mixing – Joe Gibbs Break-In oil does not need any GM EOS!
- 5 quarts of Break-In oil costs no more than Rotella plus GM EOS!
- Less Detergent for Better Ring Seal!
HOT ROD OIL
Cost Effective Protection!
- Joe Gibbs Hot Rod Oil Provides More Zinc Than API Oils
- No More Mixing – Joe Gibbs Hot Rod Oil Requires No Additive
- Unmatched Rust & Corrosion Protection
- Excellent Cold Start Protection – Less engine wear
WHAT TO USE
Choose an oil based on application: